NotesParkinsonism

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abu3li
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Parkinsonism

Unread post by abu3li » 02 Dec 2014, 16:57

Parkinsonism is any condition that causes a
combination of the movement abnormalities seen
in Parkinson's disease — such as tremor, slow
movement, impaired speech or muscle stiffness —
especially resulting from the loss of dopamine–
containing nerve cells (neurons).

Possible causes

Not everyone who has parkinsonism has
Parkinson's disease. There are many other
causes of parkinsonism (secondary parkinsonism)
including:
Medications , such as those used to treat
psychosis, major psychiatric disorders and
nausea
Repeated head trauma , such as injuries
sustained in boxing
Certain neurodegenerative disorders , such as
multiple system atrophy and progressive
supranuclear palsy
Exposure to toxins, such as carbon
monoxide, cyanide and organic solvents
Certain brain lesions, such as tumors, or fluid
buildup
Metabolic and other disorders , such as
chronic liver failure and hypoparathyroidism
Lewy body dementia

The role of medications

For drug-induced parkinsonism , discontinuing
the medications that cause the condition can
reverse it.
For other forms of parkinsonism , taking
Parkinson's disease medications — typically a
combination of carbidopa and levodopa
(Sinemet, Parcopa) — can help.
However, these drugs aren't likely to be as
effective for some forms of parkinsonism as
they are for Parkinson's disease. Levodopa —
which occurs naturally in the body and is
always taken as a combination drug —
replenishes brain dopamine, and brain
dopamine loss is fundamental to Parkinson's
disease. However, in other parkinsonian
disorders, additional chemical messengers
besides dopamine may be affected.
Other steps you can take

Certain lifestyle changes also may help you cope
with parkinsonism:

Stay physically active . To the extent you're
able, try to sustain your normal daily
activities, exercise regularly, and incorporate
physical and occupational therapy as needed.
Create a safe environment . If gait and balance
become impaired, consider modifying your
environment. For example, install grab bars
next to your toilet or in your shower; remove
obstacles, such as throw rugs; and keep
frequently used items within reach

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