Causes of Hyperkalaemia:
H: Hypoaldosteronism (Addison's Disease)
I: Iatrogenic (excess infusion)
P: Pottasium-sparing diuretics (e.g. spironolactone)
T: Tissue destruction (rhabdomyolysis, burns)
S: Spurious (lab error)
S: Suxamethonium (inducing agent in anaesthesia)
I: Ingestion ( potassium iodide, bananas, citrus)
M: Massive blood transfusion.
"TV SPARC CUBE":
Signs and symptoms of Shock:
P: Pulse weak
R: Respirations shallow/rapid
C: Cold extremeties
B: BP low
E: Eyes blank
"Every Little Boy Must Pray":
Drugs used in Vfib/Vtach according to ACLS:
Reducing an anteriorly dislocated shoulder (Kocher's manoeuvre) :
E: External rotation.
M: Medial rotation.
"I AM SCARED"
considerations in RTAs (road traffic accidents) :
I: Impact; e.g. head-on, rear-end.
A: Automobile; versus pedestrian, push bike or motorcycle.
M: Medical history.
C: Compartment intrusion.
R: Restraints; lap and shoulder, airbag, infant or child seat.
E: Ejection - Extrication.
D: Death; e.g. at scene, within same vehicle.
causes of right iliac fossa pain:
A: Appendicitis - Abscess.
P: PID - Period pains.
E: Ectopic pregnancy - Endometriosis.
C: Crohn's disease - Cyst (ovarian).
T: Torsion (ovary).
I: Irritable bowel syndrome.
S: Stones (urolithiasis).
causes of heart block:
D: Drugs; e.g. digoxin, beta blockers..
I: Ischaemia; ischaemic heart diseases i.e MI
E: Electrolytes disturbances e.g. hyperkalaemia
risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and considered risk factors of MI when the patient is presented with chest pain:
A: Age; more than 65 years old.
T: Tobbaco; heavy smokers.
H: Hypertension - Hyperlipidaemia - Hyperglycaemia.
E: Ethanol; i.e alcohol consumption.
R: Reduced physical activity.
O: Obesity - Oral contraceptive pills.
M: Male gender - Menopause.
any patient has 3 or more risk factors is considered as high risk patient and a complete work up is indicated.
drugs to be given before intubation:
L: Lidocaine; to decrease the sympathetic discharge and ICP.
O: Opioid; (fentanyl 5.0 mcg/kg) also, to decrease the sympathetic discharge and ICP.
A: Atropine; in paediatrics, to avoid bradycardia.
D: Defasciculating agents e.g. vecuronium, rocuronium.. given 3 to 5 minutes prior to administration of succinylcholine.
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